What is the ratio of simulation? if it is less than 99.9% why? What do you believe cannot be simulated properly?

How do you plan to learn how to handle accident scenarios? How much in sim, test tracks and the real-world? Exactly what will be dome in the real-world and why?

Regarding this — “To maximize the efficiency of our on-road testing, we seek out areas where the Aurora Driver will encounter new relevant situations with relatively high density. By exposing the Aurora Driver to challenging environments and conditions, we compress the time between interesting events and make every mile count.” Exactly why is most of this not done in simulation, especially the safety driving portions?

Regarding this — “Autonomous control limits — We limit the amount of control the self-driving system has over the vehicle, to prevent the system from conducting a maneuver to which the pilot could not respond. For example, during early development testing the self-driving system would not be allowed to conduct a hard swerve because such an event would not provide the pilot with enough time to resume control of the vehicle in the event of incorrect action.” How can you assure safety for safety drivers if there are time critical scenarios that cannot be made safe by any monitoring or notification system? Where the time cannot be provided to regain proper levels of situational awareness? Unless you are clairvoyant or have a legitimate geofence that makes these scenarios impossible how are you accomplishing that? (Unless you did that in sim you would have to forgo most urban and highway driving to do that.) That Control Limit section seems misleading.

Has anyone in Aurora seen DoD urban simulated war games at an FAA Level D with hundreds of simulation and simulators engaged? Including full motion DIL simulators? And not using gaming engines. They have significant real-time and model fidelity issues, cannot run extremely complex models nor as many of them at one time nor in as large and area especially if the world is not entirely geospecific with physics. The capabilities of the two architectures are drastically different. DoD runs simulations in the same urban areas with fa more complex modes, more of them and in faster real-time. And they have the added complexity of driving off the road and shooting at one another. Odds are that if you were aware of this tech you would rarely need real-world safety driving and not have to use the real-world to gather/create most long tail data.

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